"Turkmen National Music" - musical instrument
The beginning of the formation of Turkmen music concerns to 6-7 centuries, when the first heart of the Turkmen folk origins was forming. History has preserved the name of the folk singer and storyteller Babagambara (7 century) , who was one of the first folk professional musicians, predecessors of modern bakhshi. Certain information about Turkmen instruments and Turkmen music are in the works of al-Farabi, al-Kandi, Ibn Sina, Safi ad-Din al-Urmavi (9 - 13 centuries).
Music of Central Asian countries and Middle East influenced on the development of music art of Turkmenistan.
Turkmen music has no the unified system of tunes, which is peculiar to oriental musical cultures (Azerbaijanian, Iranian and etc.). Scales are not stable, and few symbols of tunes, prevalent in the folk art, depending on the context, refer to different scales. The diapason of the melody is different – from tetrachorde to one and a half of octave and more.
Turkmen music, according to the specialists’ opinion differs with originality and richness. The history of Turkmen culture knows 72 musical instruments, which in different times were widely popular. Some of them remained till our days, others went out of use.
Ud (Barbad) – five-stringed musical instrument, having no tunes. Music is played with the help of kirishkakary (mediator). In the Middle Ages ud was widely spread in the East, including Central Asian nations. The scientists of medieval East, beginning from al-Farabi in their treatises about theoretical music, mention ud. The scientific sources tell that first name of the musical instrument was “barbad”, and from the beginning of the VIII-IХ centuries it got the name “ud”.
Chen. In the epos “Gerogly” and in the compositions of the classics of Turkmen literature Seydi and Makhtumkuly it was written that chen was the national musical instrument of the Turkmen.
Kanun is the ancient musical instrument, widely used among the oriental nations. In old times kanun was mostly used by the Arabs and Turkmen, but then it was famous in Iran, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, as well as in Central Asia. From the IХ-Х centuries and till the ХVIII centuries kanun was used among the Turkmen during the festivals. Today kanun is again popular. Almost no one performance is held without it.
Dilli tuyduk. By definition of musicologists, dilli tuyduk is the primogenitor of all wind musical instruments. It is known as a horn. It is known for the Turkmen from ancient times, being not only the joy of shepherds, but the decoration of Turkmen fests.
Gargy tuyduk was famous long BC. Being widely spread among the oriental nations, gargy tuyduk reached our days in its primordial view. Gargy tuyduk is cut from reed. There are 5-6 tune holes on it. It is the wind instrument. Not all examples are equal by size. Some instruments are used only for a solo play, others – for accompaniment. Their sizes depend on vocal features of bakhshi.
Tebil. Old examples of tebil were in the form of copper or bronze cup, and the wolf skin was stretched on it. This musical instrument was taken during the war marches and was used during the hunting. Tebil was fixed to the horse’s saddle and it was beaten. Powerful sounds frightened animals, caused them panic.
Turkmen tools peculiarity is the complete absence of percussion instruments.
Today the art of producing Turkmen national musical instruments is supported and revived.